It also afforded many women opportunities for work. Clothing could be mass produced, thereby reducing the cost of individual garments.
See Article History Alternative Title: Area city, square miles square km.
This often uneasy coexistence of old and new, of continuity and change, and a deep social divide between rich and poor characterize the city, causing vitality as well as tension and upheaval—reflected in two revolutions and many social movements during the 20th century.
The symbolic significance of this site and its location on the historic east-west trade route Silk Road have ensured that this area has been the site of significant settlement for several millennia.
Allan Cash Photolibrary The northernmost limits of the city stand at about 5, feet 1, metres above sea level and the southernmost limits about 3, feet 1, metres.
There is a difference of about 2, feet metres between the northern heights and the southern edges of the city, some 19 miles 30 km away. Although the summer is very long, the city enjoys four distinct seasons, and the Elburz mountain range prevents the humidity of the Caspian Sea in the north from reaching the city.
The city has an average annual precipitation of about 10 inches mm and experiences an average of 48 days of frost per year. Motor vehicles, household fuel, and a concentration of industries generate atmospheric pollution, which cannot be cleared away, because of the effect of surrounding mountains and limited precipitation.
For two-thirds of the year, pollutants caused by fossil fuels are trapped inside a dome of hot air. The north winds are not strong enough to mobilize the polluted air, and the major winds, which blow from the west, south, and southeast, bring with them more pollution from industrial production in those areas.
The juxtaposition of mountains and desert has created diverse climatic conditions in the city and, as a result, a diverse social geography. In the 20th century, as travel between the city and the suburbs became easier, the northern heights became an integrated part of the city.
The old core forms a small part of the city, where a number of older buildings and institutions can be found. The central bazaarwith miles of roofed streets, domed trading halls, mosques, and caravanseraisremains a tourist attraction as well as a centre of economic activity.
Most of the business activities and services are located in the old core and its northward expansion, developed mainly between the s and the s.
The city core is surrounded by residential areas and growing suburbs. Older residential areas are built in the traditional style of winding narrow streets and cul-de-sacs leading to one- or two-story buildings around a central courtyard; previously inhabited by a single family, some of the larger homes in these older residential areas are now under the combined pressure of multiple occupation by low-income and migrant households, planning blightand the expansion of commercial activity.
By contrast, newer residential areas consist of wider, straight streets and outward-looking buildings of various heights with walled courtyards. Despite a rich architectural heritage, a number of historical buildings have suffered the effects of construction and expansion.
Along with green spaces, tree-lined streets, and a more moderate climate, the largely middle- and upper-income groups that inhabit the north also enjoy larger residences, lower population densities divided into smaller households, higher land value, and greater access to quality services and facilities.
Against the background of high mountains, the dominant features of the townscape in the north are modern high-rise buildings, resulting in a more diverse skyline.
Distinguished from the south by its range of physical and social advantages, the north is on the whole prone to fewer of the problems prevalent in the south—problems associated with flooding, inadequate systems of sewage management, and air pollution.
Another major feature of the urban structure is its axes. This axiality is largely the result of the interrelationship between the core-periphery and north-south divides and is also reflective of a number of traditional patterns of land use: Population density of Iran.
Birth rates have generally slowed, apart from a brief period in the early s at the height of revolution and war. This trend is especially the case in the peripheral areas, particularly the poorer neighbourhoods in the south, where larger families of recent immigrants from rural areas live.
The peripheral areas also show a larger proportion of males, mainly men from other provinces or neighbouring countries in search of work in the city. At the end of the 20th century, more than three-fifths of Iranians who changed their place of residence chose to move to the capital.
Immigrants arrived from across the country, particularly from the historically wealthier and more densely populated central and northern regions. At the beginning of the 21st century, the nuclear family had largely replaced the extended family.TIMOTHY R. SZNEWAJS is a Managing Director at FMI Capital Advisors in Denver, CO, where he works with construction industry firms, focusing on mergers and acquisitions, ownership transfer issues.
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